My internship finished last week (end of July) and I used last week to wrap up everything and create a few nice visualisations of my dataset, clean up my Python scripts and write a report.
The Python scripts that I used for extracting the texts and metadate and for cleaning the texts is available on GitHub. For Topic Modelling I used Mallet and Gensim. Mallet is a Java tool, while Gensim is a Python library. My implementation of Gensim can also be found on GitHub too.
I started my internship with knowing little about topic modelling and related tools. During my internship I learned about topic modelling as a tool to investigate a large corpus of text. I learned about benefits and pitfalls of using this technique. I explored my data set using tools such as Mallet, Gensim, nltk, and Gephi. I learned more about Python programming, how to optimise your programs and how to make them faster. Finally, I learned also a good bit about my data set, the letters of 1916, and what are issues working with it. I wrote a short internship report for DAH focusing on the objectives of the internship and my learning outcomes.
When the Letters of 1916 corpus is clustered to the 16 topics generated with Gensim and Mallet it seems that 16 topics might be too much. In one of my last posts I have shown visualisations created with Gephi, and I colored the letter nodes based on the categories that was assigned by the person that uploaded the letter. Only letters assigned to four or five of these categories actually clustered together. So after I talked with my internship supervisor Dermot it was decided that I try to reduce the number of topics to see what happens, and I would create visualisations for 4, 8, 12 generated topics. I could observer that that with 4, 8, and 12 topics the clustering was still the same as with 16 topics. However, lesser topics shows that many letters from generic categories such as 1916 Rising, or The Irish Question cluster with one of the four distinct topics.
At first I generated 16 topics (the reason is explained in a previous post) with Gensim and Mallet. When I visualised my data with Gephi I got an interesting result.
Mallet – 16 topics
Gensim – 16 topics
The Mallet output shows clearly a clustering of human assigned topics (colors) around computer generated topics (the black nodes, numbered Topic 0 – 15). At least letters assigned to four topics seem to cluster also together based on computer generated topics: Letters categorised as World War 1, Family life, Official documents and Love letters. See for instance, the clustering of letters assigned to the category of WW1 and Family life. It seems that the language of letters with these two categories are quite close:
The above mentioned categories cluster quite nicely. Another observation is that the green nodes for the categories Easter Rising and Irish question are all over the place and it is questionable if this is a useful category. The remaining categories are not used much at the moment, and they are not really visible. However, they could get more important when the data set grows.
The visualisation of the Gensim topics is not so clear at first glance, because there are many more edges. But a similar red, blue and yellow clustering can be observed. One issue with the Gensim algorithm was however that it responded much more to address information in the letters, and this influences the topic modelling process. This can be observed when looking at the generated topics, the clustering of the letters and the transcriptions of the individual letters. Address information is currently part of the transcription. The plan for the future it to encode the letters in TEI. When they are TEI encoded the stripping out of address information, salutation, etc. will be easier and much clearer topics can be generated.
I recently generated topics of the 1916 Letters project data using two different topic modelling software: Mallet, a topic modelling program written in Java, and on I wrote a script based on the Python topic modelling library Gensim. Mallet uses an implementation of LDA, while Gensim uses its own implementation of LDA, but allows also the transformation to other models and has wrapper for other implementations. For instance, there is also a Mallet wrapper (since version 0.9.0), but I could not get it to work. Anyway, the point is that the standard Gensim implementation of LDA is different from Mallet and when I ran Gensim and Mallet on the 1916 Letters data I got different results. On first sight the computer generated topics did not make much sense to me, but when I clustered the letters according to their relationships to the topics I found that similar letters would cluster together. So that showed both Gensim and Mallet worked.
Here is a first attempt to generate 16 topics. I chose the number 16 because at the moment when people upload their letters to the Letters of 1916 website they have to assign one of 16 predefined topics to their letter. Topics are for instance: World War 1, Family life, Art and literature, etc. One of the research questions I am working on is if the human assigned topics and the computer generated topics differ.
One investigation of my internship is into topic modelling of the 1916 letters. I decided to use Python, because I was already familiar with the language before I started the internship and Python has good libraries for natural language processing and topic modelling. I tested the nltk and the gensim toolkit. The nltk is a well known toolkit and I use parts of it occasionally. For an introduction I recommend the documentation and the O’Reilly book available via the NLTK website.
The gensim library is a library for ‘topic modelling for humans’, so I hope it is as easy to use and intuitive as it claims to be. It is quickly installed via easy_install or pip and it is build on NumPy and SciPy, which have to be installed in order to use it.
The Letters of 1916 project was officially launched on Research Night 27th September, 2013. Recently the project moved from Trinity College Dublin to its next phase at An Foras Feasa, the Digital Humanities center at the National University of Ireland Maynooth (NUIM). Following this move, the ‘Kildare Launch’ of the project took place on 8 May 2014 at NUIM. The evening started with an encoding and digital imaging lab. This was a great chance for the audience to get an introduction on how everyone can contribute to the Letters project by transcribing or uploading letters. The Labs were followed by talks by Professor Susan Schreibman, Robert Doyle, Dr Brian Hughes, and Lar Joye. Videos of the presentations should be available soon on the Letters 1916 homepage.
During the internship at the Center of High Performance Computing and the Letters of 1916 project I will build a text analysis tool for the online letter collection. The structure of this analysis tool can be roughly divided into three phases/steps: import of data – text analysis – visual output.
Each of these steps is a challenging task and already from the beginning a number of issues are apparent:
Data Import: The letters are all encoded in some form of TEI/XML. But because this is a crowd-sourcing project the data is certainly messy and it is not clear what is encoded and how consistent. The same for metadata. It will therefore be interesting to see how helpful the TEi markup will be in the final text analysis.
Text Analysis and Visual Output: As first step the text analysis tool will just produce a histogram-like wordcount and frequency distribution. For the text processing part it will important be cleaned the text of punctuation and markup to allow proper tokenization into words.
…and there will be more challenges ahead as the internship progresses.
The Letters of 1916 project is a crowd-sourcing project and follows a very similar approach as the famous UCL Transcribe Bentham. The website is a based on a number of different technologies. A WordPress blog is used for the homepage, description and project detail pages. For the letter upload, display and transcription functionality Omeka is used with Scripto plugin and MediaWiki at the back-end. The Transcription interface is based on the DIYHistory project of the University of Iowa and uses the Transcription Toolbar from the Transcribe Bentham project. The website was developed and maintained by the team of Trinity College Dublin High Performance Computing, especially Juliusz Filipowski, Paddy Doyle and Dermot Frost, and designed by Karolina Badzmierowska, PhD candidate in the Digital Arts and Humanities at Trinity College Dublin.
The Letters of 1916: Creating Historyis the first crowd-sourced humanities project in Ireland. The project was launched on Friday September 27th 2013 at Discover Research Night and invites people all over the world to share letters written during and related to the Easter Rising of 1916. Images of letters can be uploaded, read online and transcribed. This project focuses especially on private collections and the letters and voices of people that were less well known or even forgotten.
In the word of the principle investigator of the project Susan Schreibman, Professor of Digital Humanities NUIM:
Allowing letters from personal collections to be read alongside official letters and letters contributed by institutions will add new perspectives to the events of the period and allow us to understand what it was like to live an ordinary life through what were extraordinary times…All too often our emphasis is on the grand narrative focusing on key political figures. But as we approach the centenary of the Easter Rising we want to try to get a sense of how ordinary people coped with one of the most disruptive periods in contemporary Irish history…” press release